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NC State Extension

Physiological Parameters of Poultry

Understanding the normal physiological parameters and its modifications under pathological conditions is essential for diagnoses, treatment and prevention.

In poultry, many researchers have offered this information but it is spread among many publications. In these graphs, we have summarized the main blood parameters affected by genetics, gender, age and pathological conditions.

The statistical description of our work can be visualized in each column. We will continue feeding this database as soon as more data becomes available.

Please feel free to send us suggestions and information at

Authors: Cristian Cardozo  and  Jairo Florez


 Abdul-Rahman, S.Y., Abdulmajeed, A.F, and Alkatan, M.M. 2008. Effect of sesame seeds on blood physiological and biochemical parameters in broiler breeder hens. Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, Vol. 23, No. 1, 2009 (25-28).

Ahmad, F., Ul-Haq, A., Abbas, Y., Ashraf, M, and Siddique, M. Z. 2008. Effect of Different Brooding Techniques on Production Performance and Physiological Parameters of Broiler. Pakistan Journal of Life and Social Sciences, 6, 103–107.

Aida A., A. I., A. E. Abd, E. H., H. M., Z, and Ahmed, H. 2019. Effect Of Spearmint (Mentha Spicata) On Productive And Effect Of Spearmint (Mentha Spicata) On Productive And Physiological Parameters Of Broiler Chicks. Egyptian Poultry Science, 38 (January), 815–829.

Amara, P., Zimermann, C., Santos, L., Noro, M., Pra, M., Pilotto, F., … and Dickel, E. (2017). Evaluation of Physiological Parameters of Broilers with Dorsal Cranial Myopathy. Brazilian Journal of Poultry Science, 19, 69–74.

Andrade, T. dos S., Nunes, R. V., Mara da Silva, I., Wachholz, L, and Fascina, V. B. 2017. Performance and physiological parameters in broilers fed different enzyme complexes Desempenho e parâmetros fisiológicos de frangos de corte alimentados com diferentes programas de enzimas Resumo. Semina: Ciências Agrárias, Londrina, 38(4), 2765–2774.

Bafundo, K. W., da Costa, M. J., and Pesti, G. M. 2018. Blood Glucose Concentrations in Nicarbazin-Fed Broiler Chickens. Avian Diseases, 62(1), 114–116.

Balog, J. M., Anthony, N. B., Cooper, M. A., Kidd, B. D., Huff, G. R., Huff, W. E., and Rath, N. C. 2000. Ascites Syndrome and Related Pathologies in Feed Restricted Broilers Raised in a Hypobaric Chamber. Poultry Science, 79, 318–323.

Balog, J. M., Huff, G. R., Rath, N. C., and Huff, W. E. 2000. Effect of Dietary Aspirin on Ascites in Broilers Raised in a Hypobaric Chamber. Poultry Science, 79, 1101–1105.

Berri, C., Debut, M., Santé, V., Arnould, C., Boutten, B., Sellier, N., Baéza, E., Jehl, N., Jégo, Y., Duclos, M.J, and Le Bihan-Duval, E. 2013. Variations in chicken breast meat quality: implications of struggle and muscle glycogen content at death. British Poultry Science. Volume 46, Number 5 (October 2005), pp. 572–579

Bölükbasi, S. C., Güzel, M., and Aktas, M. S. 2004. Effect of Early Feed Restriction on Ascites Induced by Cold Temperatures and Growth Performance in Broilers. Journal of Applied Animal Research, (September 2013), 37–41.

Bowes, V. A., Julian, R. J., and Stirtzinger, T. 1988. Comparison of Serum Biochemical Profiles of Male Broilers with Female Broilers and White Leghorn Chickens. Can Journal Veterinary Research, 53, 7–11.

Buys, N., Buyse, J., Hassanzadeh, and M, and Decuypere, E. 1998. Poultry Science. 77(1):54-61. DOI: 10.1093/ps/77.1.54

Buys, N., Scheele, C. W., Kwakernaak, C., Van Der Klis, J. D, and Decuypere, E. 1999. Performance and physiological variables in broiler chicken lines differing in susceptibility to the ascites syndrome: 1. Changes in blood gases as a function of ambient temperature. British Poultry Science, 1668, 135–139.

Daneshyar, M., Kermanshahi, H., and Golian, A. 2007. Changes of biochemical parameters and enzyme activities in broiler chickens with cold-induced ascites. Poultry Science, 88(1), 106–110.

Druyan S., Shinder D., Shlosberg A., Cahaner A, and Yahav, S. 1990. Physiological parameters in broiler lines divergently selected for the incidence of ascites. Poultry Science, Volume 88, Issue 9

Druyan, S., Levi, E., Shinder, D, and Stern, T. 2005. Reduced O2 concentration during CAM development — Its effect on physiological parameters of broiler embryos. Poultry Science, 5, 987–997.

Eler, G., Gomes, A. V. C., Trindade, B. S., Almeida, L. S. L., Dilelis, F., Cardoso, V. S, and C.A.R., L. 2019. Oregano essential oil in the diet of broilers: performance, carcass characteristics, and blood parameters. South African Journal of Animal Science, 49(4), 754–762.

Erdog˘ an, Z., Erdog˘ an, S., Aslantas¸ O¨, and C¸ elik, S. 2009. Effects of dietary supplementation of synbiotics and phytobiotics on performance, caecal coliform population and some oxidant/antioxidant parameters of broilers. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition. DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0396.2009.00973.x

Hashemipour, H., Khaksar, V., Rubio, L.A., Veldkamp, T, and van Krimpen, M.M. 2013. Animal Feed Science and Technology.

Huang, Q., Gao, X., Liu, P., Lin, H., Liu, W., i Liu, G., Zhang, L., Deng, G., Zhang, C., Cao, H., Guo, X, and Hu, G. 2017. The relationship between liver-kidney impairment and viral load after nephropathogenic infectious bronchitis virus infection in embryonic chickens. Poultry Science, 96:1589–1597.

Jahanpour, H., Seidavi, A., & Qotbi, A. 2013. Effects of Two Levels of Quantitative Feed Restriction for a 7-or 14-Days Period on Broilers Blood Parameters Eff ects of Two Levels of Quantitative Feed Restriction for a 7- or 14- Days Period on Broilers Blood Parameters. Acta Scientiae Veterinarie, 41(1144):1-11.

Jiang, S., Cheng, H. W., Cui, L. Y., Zhou, Z. L., & Hou, J. F. 2012. Changes of blood parameters associated with bone remodeling following experimentally induced fatty liver disorder in laying hens. Poultry Science, 92, 1443–1453.

Jong, I. C. De, Voorst, S. Van, Ehlhardt, D. A., & Blokhuis, H. J. 2010. Effects of restricted feeding on physiological stress parameters in growing broiler breeders. British Poultry Science, 1668, 157–168.

Kwiecien, M., Samolinska, W., & Bujanowicz-Hara, B. 2015. Effects of iron – glycine chelate on growth, carcass characteristic, liver mineral concentrations and hematological and biochemical blood parameters in broilers. Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 99, 1184–1196.

Luger, D., Shinder, D., Rzepakovsky, V., Rusal, M., & Yahav, S. 2001. Association Between Weight Gain , Blood Parameters , and Thyroid Hormones and the Development of Ascites Syndrome in Broiler Chickens. Poultry Science, 80(7), 965–971.

LV, Z.-P., Peng, Y.-Z., Zhang, B.-B., Fan, H., Liu, D., & Guo, Y.-M. 2018. Glucose and lipid metabolism disorders in the chickens with induced oxidative stress. Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, (August 2017), 706–717.

Macrae, V. E., Mahon, M., Gilpin, S., Sandercock, D. A., Hunter, R. R., & Mitchell, M. A. 2007. A Comparison of Breast Muscle Characteristics in Three Broiler Great-Grandparent Lines. Poultry Science, 86, 382–385.

Mahmood H., Ghorbanali S, and Ahmad K. 2017. Effects of purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.) powder on growth performance, blood indices, and antioxidant status in broiler chickens with triiodothyronine-induced ascites. Arch. Anim. Breed, 60, 315–325.

Mohamed, E. A. A., Ali, O. H. A., Malik, E. E., & Yousif, I. A. 2012. Effect of Season and Dietary Protein Level on Some Hematological Parameters and Blood Biochemical Compositions of Three Broiler Strains. Indian Journal Animal Research, 11(12), 787–793.

Mohammadalipour, R., Rahmani, H. R., Jahanian, R., Riasi, A., Mohammadalipour, M., & Nili, N. 2016. Effect of early feed restriction on physiological responses, performance and ascites incidence in broiler chickens raised in normal or cold environment. Animal, 11(2016), 219–226.

Mohebbifar, A., Torki, M., & Abdolmohammadi, A. 2019. Effects of Dietary Guanidinoacetic Acid Supplementation on Performance, Blood Parameters and Meat Quality of Male Broilers with Cold ‐ Induced Ascites. Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science, 9 (Mar 2019), 125–133.

Muchacka, R., Skomorucha, I., Sosnowka-Czajka, E., Formicki, G., Gren, A, and Goc, Z. 2012. EFFECT OF ELEVATED AIR TEMPERATURE ON PHYSIOLOGICAL Indicator of Broiler Chickens of Different Origin. Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Food Sciences, 2(1), 378–388.

Peebles, E D, Keirs, R. W., Bennett, L. W., Cummings, T. S., Whitmarsh, S. K, and Gerard, P. D. 2005. Relationships Among Prehatch and Posthatch Physiological Parameters in Early Nutrient Restricted Broilers Hatched from Eggs Laid by Young Breeder Hens. Poultry Science, 84(3), 454–461.

Peebles, E. David, Keirs, R. W., Bennett, L. W., Cummings, T. S., Whitmarsh, S. K, and Gerard, P. D. 2004. Relationships among Post-Hatch Physiological Parameters in Broiler Chicks Hatched from Young Breeder Hens and Subjected to Delayed Brooding Placement. International Journal of Poultry Science, 578–585.

Rath, N. C., Huff, W. E., Balog, J. M, and Bayyari, G. R. 1990. Effect of Gonadal Steroids on Bone and Other Physiological Parameters of Male Broiler Chickens. Poultry Science, 75(4), 556–562.

Sosnowka-czajka, E., Muchacka, R, and Skomorucha, I. 2016. Physiological indicators in broiler chickens from different commercial lines reared under organic conditions. Ann. Animal Science, 8(January 2008), 121–126.

Sholosberg, A., Bellaiche, M. 1996. Hematocrit Values and Mortality from Ascites in Cold-Stressed Broilers  from  Parents  Selected  by  Hematocrit. Poultry Science 75:1-5.

Tekeli, A. 2014. Effects of Ascites (Pulmonary Hypertension Syndrome) On Blood Gas, Blood Oximetry Parameters and Heart Sections of Broilers Grown At High Altitude. Animal & Plant Sciences, 24(4), 998–1002.

Tomaszewska, E., Dobrowolski, P., Wawrzyniak, A, and Burmanczuk, N. 2016. Comparison of the effect of a standard inclusion level of inorganic zinc to organic form at lowered level on bone development in growing male Ross broiler chickens. Ann. Animal Science, 16(2), 507–519.

Tumova, E., Chodova, D., Harttlova, H., Fucikova, A, and Ketta, M. 2019. Effect of feeding regime on the performance and blood parameters of male and female broiler chickens. South African Journal of Animal Science, 49(2019), 244–252.

Wang, Y., Guo, Y., Ning, D., Peng, Y., Cai, H., Tan, J., … Liu, D. 2012. Changes of hepatic biochemical parameters and proteomics in broilers with cold-induced ascites. Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology, 41, 1–9.

Yalcin, S., Ozkan, S., Oktay, G., Cabuk, M., Erbayraktar, Z, and Bilgili, S. F. 2004. Age-Related Effects of Catching, Crating, and Transportation at Different Seasons on Core Body Temperature and Physiological Blood Parameters in Broilers. Poultry Science Association, 549–560.

Yang, F., Ruan, J., Wang, T., Luo, J., Cao, H., Song, Y, and Huang, J. 2017. Improving effect of dietary soybean phospholipids supplement on hepatic and serum indexes relevant to fatty liver hemorrhagic syndrome in laying hens. Animal Science Journal, 88(1101), 1860–1869.

Zarghi, H., Golian, A, and Nikabakhtzade, M. 2020. Effect of dietary digestible lysine level on growth performance, blood metabolites and meat quality of broilers 23 – 38 days of age. Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 104(March 2019), 156–165.

Zhang, H., Mehmood, K., Jiang, X., Yao, W., Iqbal, M., Waqas, M., … Li, J. 2018. Effect of tetramethyl thiuram disulfide (thiram) in relation to tibial dyschondroplasia in chickens. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 25, 28264–28274.